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  1. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Creative Commons
  2. Corporation ("Creative Commons") is not a law firm and does not provide legal
  3. services or legal advice. Distribution of Creative Commons public licenses
  4. does not create a lawyer-client or other relationship. Creative Commons makes
  5. its licenses and related information available on an "as-is" basis. Creative
  6. Commons gives no warranties regarding its licenses, any material licensed
  7. under their terms and conditions, or any related information. Creative Commons
  8. disclaims all liability for damages resulting from their use to the fullest
  9. extent possible.
  10. Using Creative Commons Public Licenses
  11. Creative Commons public licenses provide a standard set of terms and conditions
  12. that creators and other rights holders may use to share original works of
  13. authorship and other material subject to copyright and certain other rights
  14. specified in the public license below. The following considerations are for
  15. informational purposes only, are not exhaustive, and do not form part of our
  16. licenses.
  17. Considerations for licensors: Our public licenses are intended for use by
  18. those authorized to give the public permission to use material in ways otherwise
  19. restricted by copyright and certain other rights. Our licenses are irrevocable.
  20. Licensors should read and understand the terms and conditions of the license
  21. they choose before applying it. Licensors should also secure all rights necessary
  22. before applying our licenses so that the public can reuse the material as
  23. expected. Licensors should clearly mark any material not subject to the license.
  24. This includes other CC-licensed material, or material used under an exception
  25. or limitation to copyright. More considerations for licensors :
  26. Considerations for the public: By using one of our public licenses, a licensor
  27. grants the public permission to use the licensed material under specified
  28. terms and conditions. If the licensor's permission is not necessary for any
  29. reason–for example, because of any applicable exception or limitation to copyright–then
  30. that use is not regulated by the license. Our licenses grant only permissions
  31. under copyright and certain other rights that a licensor has authority to
  32. grant. Use of the licensed material may still be restricted for other reasons,
  33. including because others have copyright or other rights in the material. A
  34. licensor may make special requests, such as asking that all changes be marked
  35. or described. Although not required by our licenses, you are encouraged to
  36. respect those requests where reasonable. More considerations for the public
  37. : Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial
  38. 4.0 International Public License
  39. By exercising the Licensed Rights (defined below), You accept and agree to
  40. be bound by the terms and conditions of this Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial
  41. 4.0 International Public License ("Public License"). To the extent this Public
  42. License may be interpreted as a contract, You are granted the Licensed Rights
  43. in consideration of Your acceptance of these terms and conditions, and the
  44. Licensor grants You such rights in consideration of benefits the Licensor
  45. receives from making the Licensed Material available under these terms and
  46. conditions.
  47. Section 1 – Definitions.
  48. a. Adapted Material means material subject to Copyright and Similar Rights
  49. that is derived from or based upon the Licensed Material and in which the
  50. Licensed Material is translated, altered, arranged, transformed, or otherwise
  51. modified in a manner requiring permission under the Copyright and Similar
  52. Rights held by the Licensor. For purposes of this Public License, where the
  53. Licensed Material is a musical work, performance, or sound recording, Adapted
  54. Material is always produced where the Licensed Material is synched in timed
  55. relation with a moving image.
  56. b. Adapter's License means the license You apply to Your Copyright and Similar
  57. Rights in Your contributions to Adapted Material in accordance with the terms
  58. and conditions of this Public License.
  59. c. Copyright and Similar Rights means copyright and/or similar rights closely
  60. related to copyright including, without limitation, performance, broadcast,
  61. sound recording, and Sui Generis Database Rights, without regard to how the
  62. rights are labeled or categorized. For purposes of this Public License, the
  63. rights specified in Section 2(b)(1)-(2) are not Copyright and Similar Rights.
  64. d. Effective Technological Measures means those measures that, in the absence
  65. of proper authority, may not be circumvented under laws fulfilling obligations
  66. under Article 11 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty adopted on December 20, 1996,
  67. and/or similar international agreements.
  68. e. Exceptions and Limitations means fair use, fair dealing, and/or any other
  69. exception or limitation to Copyright and Similar Rights that applies to Your
  70. use of the Licensed Material.
  71. f. Licensed Material means the artistic or literary work, database, or other
  72. material to which the Licensor applied this Public License.
  73. g. Licensed Rights means the rights granted to You subject to the terms and
  74. conditions of this Public License, which are limited to all Copyright and
  75. Similar Rights that apply to Your use of the Licensed Material and that the
  76. Licensor has authority to license.
  77. h. Licensor means the individual(s) or entity(ies) granting rights under this
  78. Public License.
  79. i. NonCommercial means not primarily intended for or directed towards commercial
  80. advantage or monetary compensation. For purposes of this Public License, the
  81. exchange of the Licensed Material for other material subject to Copyright
  82. and Similar Rights by digital file-sharing or similar means is NonCommercial
  83. provided there is no payment of monetary compensation in connection with the
  84. exchange.
  85. j. Share means to provide material to the public by any means or process that
  86. requires permission under the Licensed Rights, such as reproduction, public
  87. display, public performance, distribution, dissemination, communication, or
  88. importation, and to make material available to the public including in ways
  89. that members of the public may access the material from a place and at a time
  90. individually chosen by them.
  91. k. Sui Generis Database Rights means rights other than copyright resulting
  92. from Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11
  93. March 1996 on the legal protection of databases, as amended and/or succeeded,
  94. as well as other essentially equivalent rights anywhere in the world.
  95. l. You means the individual or entity exercising the Licensed Rights under
  96. this Public License. Your has a corresponding meaning.
  97. Section 2 – Scope.
  98. a. License grant.
  99. 1. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Public License, the Licensor
  100. hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-sublicensable, non-exclusive,
  101. irrevocable license to exercise the Licensed Rights in the Licensed Material
  102. to:
  103. A. reproduce and Share the Licensed Material, in whole or in part, for NonCommercial
  104. purposes only; and
  105. B. produce, reproduce, and Share Adapted Material for NonCommercial purposes
  106. only.
  107. 2. Exceptions and Limitations. For the avoidance of doubt, where Exceptions
  108. and Limitations apply to Your use, this Public License does not apply, and
  109. You do not need to comply with its terms and conditions.
  110. 3. Term. The term of this Public License is specified in Section 6(a).
  111. 4. Media and formats; technical modifications allowed. The Licensor authorizes
  112. You to exercise the Licensed Rights in all media and formats whether now known
  113. or hereafter created, and to make technical modifications necessary to do
  114. so. The Licensor waives and/or agrees not to assert any right or authority
  115. to forbid You from making technical modifications necessary to exercise the
  116. Licensed Rights, including technical modifications necessary to circumvent
  117. Effective Technological Measures. For purposes of this Public License, simply
  118. making modifications authorized by this Section 2(a)(4) never produces Adapted
  119. Material.
  120. 5. Downstream recipients.
  121. A. Offer from the Licensor – Licensed Material. Every recipient of the Licensed
  122. Material automatically receives an offer from the Licensor to exercise the
  123. Licensed Rights under the terms and conditions of this Public License.
  124. B. No downstream restrictions. You may not offer or impose any additional
  125. or different terms or conditions on, or apply any Effective Technological
  126. Measures to, the Licensed Material if doing so restricts exercise of the Licensed
  127. Rights by any recipient of the Licensed Material.
  128. 6. No endorsement. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be construed
  129. as permission to assert or imply that You are, or that Your use of the Licensed
  130. Material is, connected with, or sponsored, endorsed, or granted official status
  131. by, the Licensor or others designated to receive attribution as provided in
  132. Section 3(a)(1)(A)(i).
  133. b. Other rights.
  134. 1. Moral rights, such as the right of integrity, are not licensed under this
  135. Public License, nor are publicity, privacy, and/or other similar personality
  136. rights; however, to the extent possible, the Licensor waives and/or agrees
  137. not to assert any such rights held by the Licensor to the limited extent necessary
  138. to allow You to exercise the Licensed Rights, but not otherwise.
  139. 2. Patent and trademark rights are not licensed under this Public License.
  140. 3. To the extent possible, the Licensor waives any right to collect royalties
  141. from You for the exercise of the Licensed Rights, whether directly or through
  142. a collecting society under any voluntary or waivable statutory or compulsory
  143. licensing scheme. In all other cases the Licensor expressly reserves any right
  144. to collect such royalties, including when the Licensed Material is used other
  145. than for NonCommercial purposes.
  146. Section 3 – License Conditions.
  147. Your exercise of the Licensed Rights is expressly made subject to the following
  148. conditions.
  149. a. Attribution.
  150. 1. If You Share the Licensed Material (including in modified form), You must:
  151. A. retain the following if it is supplied by the Licensor with the Licensed
  152. Material:
  153. i. identification of the creator(s) of the Licensed Material and any others
  154. designated to receive attribution, in any reasonable manner requested by the
  155. Licensor (including by pseudonym if designated);
  156. ii. a copyright notice;
  157. iii. a notice that refers to this Public License;
  158. iv. a notice that refers to the disclaimer of warranties;
  159. v. a URI or hyperlink to the Licensed Material to the extent reasonably practicable;
  160. B. indicate if You modified the Licensed Material and retain an indication
  161. of any previous modifications; and
  162. C. indicate the Licensed Material is licensed under this Public License, and
  163. include the text of, or the URI or hyperlink to, this Public License.
  164. 2. You may satisfy the conditions in Section 3(a)(1) in any reasonable manner
  165. based on the medium, means, and context in which You Share the Licensed Material.
  166. For example, it may be reasonable to satisfy the conditions by providing a
  167. URI or hyperlink to a resource that includes the required information.
  168. 3. If requested by the Licensor, You must remove any of the information required
  169. by Section 3(a)(1)(A) to the extent reasonably practicable.
  170. 4. If You Share Adapted Material You produce, the Adapter's License You apply
  171. must not prevent recipients of the Adapted Material from complying with this
  172. Public License.
  173. Section 4 – Sui Generis Database Rights.
  174. Where the Licensed Rights include Sui Generis Database Rights that apply to
  175. Your use of the Licensed Material:
  176. a. for the avoidance of doubt, Section 2(a)(1) grants You the right to extract,
  177. reuse, reproduce, and Share all or a substantial portion of the contents of
  178. the database for NonCommercial purposes only;
  179. b. if You include all or a substantial portion of the database contents in
  180. a database in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights, then the database
  181. in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights (but not its individual contents)
  182. is Adapted Material; and
  183. c. You must comply with the conditions in Section 3(a) if You Share all or
  184. a substantial portion of the contents of the database.
  185. For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 4 supplements and does not replace
  186. Your obligations under this Public License where the Licensed Rights include
  187. other Copyright and Similar Rights.
  188. Section 5 – Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability.
  189. a. Unless otherwise separately undertaken by the Licensor, to the extent possible,
  190. the Licensor offers the Licensed Material as-is and as-available, and makes
  191. no representations or warranties of any kind concerning the Licensed Material,
  192. whether express, implied, statutory, or other. This includes, without limitation,
  193. warranties of title, merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement,
  194. absence of latent or other defects, accuracy, or the presence or absence of
  195. errors, whether or not known or discoverable. Where disclaimers of warranties
  196. are not allowed in full or in part, this disclaimer may not apply to You.
  197. b. To the extent possible, in no event will the Licensor be liable to You
  198. on any legal theory (including, without limitation, negligence) or otherwise
  199. for any direct, special, indirect, incidental, consequential, punitive, exemplary,
  200. or other losses, costs, expenses, or damages arising out of this Public License
  201. or use of the Licensed Material, even if the Licensor has been advised of
  202. the possibility of such losses, costs, expenses, or damages. Where a limitation
  203. of liability is not allowed in full or in part, this limitation may not apply
  204. to You.
  205. c. The disclaimer of warranties and limitation of liability provided above
  206. shall be interpreted in a manner that, to the extent possible, most closely
  207. approximates an absolute disclaimer and waiver of all liability.
  208. Section 6 – Term and Termination.
  209. a. This Public License applies for the term of the Copyright and Similar Rights
  210. licensed here. However, if You fail to comply with this Public License, then
  211. Your rights under this Public License terminate automatically.
  212. b. Where Your right to use the Licensed Material has terminated under Section
  213. 6(a), it reinstates:
  214. 1. automatically as of the date the violation is cured, provided it is cured
  215. within 30 days of Your discovery of the violation; or
  216. 2. upon express reinstatement by the Licensor.
  217. For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 6(b) does not affect any right the
  218. Licensor may have to seek remedies for Your violations of this Public License.
  219. c. For the avoidance of doubt, the Licensor may also offer the Licensed Material
  220. under separate terms or conditions or stop distributing the Licensed Material
  221. at any time; however, doing so will not terminate this Public License.
  222. d. Sections 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 survive termination of this Public License.
  223. Section 7 – Other Terms and Conditions.
  224. a. The Licensor shall not be bound by any additional or different terms or
  225. conditions communicated by You unless expressly agreed.
  226. b. Any arrangements, understandings, or agreements regarding the Licensed
  227. Material not stated herein are separate from and independent of the terms
  228. and conditions of this Public License.
  229. Section 8 – Interpretation.
  230. a. For the avoidance of doubt, this Public License does not, and shall not
  231. be interpreted to, reduce, limit, restrict, or impose conditions on any use
  232. of the Licensed Material that could lawfully be made without permission under
  233. this Public License.
  234. b. To the extent possible, if any provision of this Public License is deemed
  235. unenforceable, it shall be automatically reformed to the minimum extent necessary
  236. to make it enforceable. If the provision cannot be reformed, it shall be severed
  237. from this Public License without affecting the enforceability of the remaining
  238. terms and conditions.
  239. c. No term or condition of this Public License will be waived and no failure
  240. to comply consented to unless expressly agreed to by the Licensor.
  241. d. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be interpreted as a limitation
  242. upon, or waiver of, any privileges and immunities that apply to the Licensor
  243. or You, including from the legal processes of any jurisdiction or authority.
  244. Creative Commons is not a party to its public licenses. Notwithstanding, Creative
  245. Commons may elect to apply one of its public licenses to material it publishes
  246. and in those instances will be considered the "Licensor." The text of the
  247. Creative Commons public licenses is dedicated to the public domain under the
  248. CC0 Public Domain Dedication. Except for the limited purpose of indicating
  249. that material is shared under a Creative Commons public license or as otherwise
  250. permitted by the Creative Commons policies published at,
  251. Creative Commons does not authorize the use of the trademark "Creative Commons"
  252. or any other trademark or logo of Creative Commons without its prior written
  253. consent including, without limitation, in connection with any unauthorized
  254. modifications to any of its public licenses or any other arrangements, understandings,
  255. or agreements concerning use of licensed material. For the avoidance of doubt,
  256. this paragraph does not form part of the public licenses.
  257. Creative Commons may be contacted at